Anaemia: definition, treatment, symptoms, causes, what is it? - Anemia is a condition that affects nearly one quarter of the world population. This abnormality can eventually cause complications and needs to be treated if the situation becomes critical. Focus on this blood disorder. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), not less than 25% of the world population suffer from anemia. But this health problem that affects the blood can have various causes.
Anaemia: definition, treatment, symptoms, causes, what is it?
Definition: anemia, what is it? Anemia is an abnormally low level of hemoglobin in the blood. Hemoglobin is a protein contained within red blood cells that allows them to carry oxygen in the body via the blood. This is why people with anemia fizzle and tire more quickly, in fact their heart must redouble efforts to transmit the same amount of oxygen. There is talk of anemia when the hemoglobin falls below 140 grams per liter of blood from the newborn, of 130 g / l in adult men and 120 g / l in adult women. However, there are two main types of anemia: central and peripheral anemia anemia. The former are characterized by insufficient production of red blood cells and hemoglobin in the bone marrow. For seconds, however, the production is normal but down occurs due to a significant loss of red blood cells, for example via bleeding, or because of a destruction of these cells, it is called hemolysis.
The causes of anemia This health problem may be due to various causes. But most often, it is linked to a nutritional deficiency of iron or vitamins. Elements that are essential to the production of hemoglobin and functioning of red blood cells. Anemia can also be linked to kidney disease that will disrupt the production of another essential element called erythropoietin. An inflammatory disease or disorder in the bone marrow can also trigger insufficient red blood cells.
Women who have heavy periods, the preschool children and pregnant women are most at risk of developing anemia. Symptoms: how to recognize anemia? Most individuals who suffer from mild anemia do not notice it. Indeed, depending on the severity, type of anemia and its speed of onset, the symptoms will be more or less intense. Overall, symptoms of anemia are fairly typical, they are characterized by: - fatigue - paleness - a rapid heartbeat - faster breathlessness on exertion. One can also find: - the ends of the cold limbs - headache - dizziness - increased vulnerability to infections.
You can see in the case of more severe anemia, pain in the limbs, abdomen in the back or chest, visual disturbances and a jaundice. Diagnosis and treatment against anemia The diagnosis of anemia is via a physical examination completed by blood tests, specifically a blood count, which will assess the hemoglobin in the blood. If the latter is less than the values listed above, anemia is confirmed. The blood count will also allow to obtain information as to the origin of the disorder, particularly if it is linked to a deficiency or not.
The treatments then vary according to the type and cause of anemia. - If anemia is due to iron deficiency, the doctor will try to identify the cause and prescribe supplementation in pill form. - If there is a lack of vitamin B12 or folic acid (vitamin B9), supplementation might also be prescribed. - If anemia is caused by a medication, stop taking it. - If anemia is associated with a disease, it must be treated to reduce the symptoms - For women with heavy menstruation, hormone therapy can help reduce the symptoms - If acquired hemolytic anemia (not congenital) , immunosuppressants and corticosteroids are prescribed - in cases of severe anemia, synthetic erythropoietin injections, blood transfusions or a bone marrow transplant may be considered, depending on the patient. If anemia is severe or it lasts long without care, it can lead to heart and lung complications.